Online textile learning platform

Monday, December 17, 2018

Sewing Operation in Apparel Industry

Sewing Operation:
Sewing is the most important operation in the process of garments making. Sewing means joining of different parts of garments with the use of needle and thread. Without needle and thread, we can also make garments by using alternative methods of joining like adhesive, welding etc. Sewing is the most important among all the processes of garments joining. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam.
Sewing in garment industry
Fig: Sewing in garment industry
Sewing Operation Flow Chart:

At first PPM (Pre-Production Meeting) complete by all concerned persons

Input schedule collect from planning department (through E-mail)

Sample collects from Quality department

Layout sheet collect from IE department

Layout sheet provide to Mechanic, Technical & Supervisor

Input collect from Supermarket through Kanban box

Thread & other accessories collect from store

M/C arrange, setting or adjust by Mechanic & Supervisor

Sewing start & layout completed

First output initial check

Process wise quality ensure by line quality inspector through Traffic Light system

End line quality inspection done by Table quality inspector

QC Pass / QC Fail

If QC Pass then goods receive by Receive man OR If QC Fail then again Sewing start & layout completed

Goods send to snap button section (if needed)

Goods send to Finishing section

Sewing Machine Types:

1. Plain machine: Top stitch, Label attaching
2. Over lock machine: Sleeve joining, Side seam joining, Shoulder joining
3. Flat lock machine:

  • Cylinder bed: All types of top stitch
  • Flat-bed: Folding & Piping
  • Compressor: Bottom hem & Sleeve hem
  • Feed of the arm: Back tap & Arm tap
4. Kansai machine: Placket, Waist band
5. Button holing machine: Button holing and stitching it
6. Button attaching machine: Button attaching
7. Snap button machine: Snap button attaching
8. Chain stitch machine: Waist band

Seam is a line where two pieces of fabric are sewn together in a garment or other articles. A seam is basically a line of stitching. Seams are stitched on the seam line. The seam allowance is the distance between the seam line and the cut edge. The standard seam allowance is (1.5 cm) wide.

Properties of seam:

  • Seam strength
  • Elasticity
  • Durability
  • Security
  • Comfort
  • Special properties
          – Water proof
          – Fire proof

Types of seam:
There are eight types of seam. They are-

  1. Class-1: Superimposed seam
  2. Class-2: Lapped seam
  3. Class-3: Bound seam
  4. Class-4: Flat seam
  5. Class-5: Decorative seam
  6. Class-6: Edge neatening
  7. Class-7
  8. Class-8
Loop or loops of one or more threads when bounds with each other, either by interlacing, interloping, interloping or combination of those when sewing fabric, each unit of such configuration is called stitch.

Types of stitch:

There are available of 70 types of stitch. But from 18 to 20 types of stitch are used in textile industry.

All stitches are included in six classes:

  1. Stitch class-100
  2. Stitch class-200
  3. Stitch class-300
  4. Stitch class-400
  5. Stitch class-500
  6. Stitch class-600
Thread Consumption Formulae for Different Stitch Types:

1. Stitch Type-101 (Single thread chain stitch)
C = ( 3N + 2T ) × S

2.  Stitch Type-301 (Single thread lock stitch)
C = ( 2N + 2T ) × S

3. Stitch Type-401 (Single needle chain stitch)
C = ( 4N + 2T ) × S

4. Stitch Type-504 ( Three thread over edge stitch)
C = ( 3N + 4W + 4T ) × S


C = Thread Consumption
N = Stitch Length
T = Thickness
S = Stitch per Inch (SPI)

Sewing Faults, Causes and Remedy:

Table: Sewing Faults, Causes and Remedy

Sewing Faults
Needle thread breakage
Misaligned off winding from thread package; excessive tension, poor quality thread
Ensure that the overhead guide is above cop stand pin; use a stronger thread
Bobbin or looper thread breakage
Badly wound thread on the bobbin
Adjust bobbin winder alignment
Tread fusing when machine stop
Poorly finished or incorrect thread
Use better quality thread
Skipped stitches
Hook, looper or needle failing to enter thread loops at the correct time
Changes machine clearance and timings
Imbalance stitching
In correct sewing tension
Check for snarling, adjust thread tensions
Variable stitch density
Poor fabric feed control
Increase the pressure feet pressure
Seam pucker
Variable different fabric feed
Improve the fabric feed mechanism

Author of this Article:
Tareq Salman
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
Tangail, Bangladesh

You may also like:

  1. Different Types of Sewing Machines Used in Garment Industry
  2. Properties and Classification of Seam
  3. Sewing Thread Testing Parameters
  4. Single Needle Lockstitch Machine: Features and Working Principles